我們崇尚的真理

發佈日期: 2016-06-29

In honor of Toastmasters International 90th Anniversary, we share this essay by Dr. Ralph C. Smedley originally appeared in the Toastmaster magazine in July 1948. 
本文為國際演講會創辦人史邁利博士所撰,發表於1948年7月份的《國際演講人》雜誌,

WE HOLD THESE TRUTHS 
Toastmasters’ founder shares his vision -Ralph C. Smedley

我們崇尚的真理(註1) 
國際演講會創辦人的願景 
作者:Ralph C. Smedley

 

A Toastmasters club is not a propaganda organization. It does not adopt resolutions, sponsor candidates, nor go out for “causes.” It cannot commit its membership in support of any controversial matters, for its members come from all elements of society, and unanimity of opinion is hardly to expected or desired. Different groups—social, political, religious, racial and occupational—are represented in the typical club. It is a cross-section of its community. 
國際演講會不是宣傳機構,不鼓吹投票選哪個方案、不贊助候選人,也不為「理念」奔走。國際演講會不可能發動會員支持爭議性議題的任何一方,因為會員的社會成份各不相同,不可能、也不能期望有一致的看法。國際演講會各分會的會員,都由不同政治、種族、職業的族群組成,猶如社會的縮影。

  
A Toastmasters club is definitely a training organization. It welcomes men of all sorts of opinions into its membership and undertakes to train them to think logically and to speak honestly in behalf of whatever cause or procedure they believe in. The work of a Toastmasters club is to help each member to be his best self, as a member of society and as a protagonist of the things that seem to him most worthwhile. 
國際演講會是純粹的訓練組織,歡迎不同想法的人加入,致力於訓練會員運用條理清晰的思考來真誠表達他們所相信的理念或程序。國際演講會各分會的職責是幫助會員在不同角色中表現最好的一面,無論充當社會的一員,或者為他深信值得投入的事物擔任倡導者。
 

(註1) 標題的原文We Hold These Truth典出美國《獨立宣言》,見下文。 
[country’s] forefather of 1776, “We hold these truth to be self-evident,” although our list of “truths” may differ slightly from theirs. But in the Toastmasters club, certain principles are held inviolable. Like our [country’s] forefather of 1776, “We hold these truth to be self-evident,” although our list of “truths” may differ slightly from theirs. 
會員的想法或有不同,不過國際演講會有些準則還是不容違背。就像美國獨立先賢在1776年所說:「我們認為這些真理不証自明。」(註2)但以下列出的「真理」,可能和他們揭櫫的生命權、自由權和追求幸福的權利有些不同。
 

We hold that every man is entitled to freedom of thoughts, as well as freedom of speech. He must be permitted—even encouraged—to study, learn, think and reach his own conclusion. 
我們相信各人都有思想的自由,也有言論的自由。他們必須受到容許(甚至受到鼓勵)去從事研究、學習、思考乃至歸納自己的心得。
 

Every man, having thought, is entitled to freedom of speech. But his hearers have the right to demand that he speak intelligently, reasonably and honestly if he expect them to listen. Every man, speaking his well-considered thoughts, has a right to be heard. His right to be heard is in proportion to the worthiness of his thoughts, and the effectiveness of his speaking. 
每一位有想法的人有權享受言論自由,但若想要別人洗耳恭聽,則聽者也有權要求演講內容睿智、合理而真誠。每一位想發表苦思所得的人,都有權要求他人聆聽,權利大小和思想的價值及表達的成效成正比。
 

Every man, having spoken, has a right to listen to others, his listing must be with open mind, with analytical attitude, with a purpose to accept what is true and to reject what is untrue. 
每一位發表過演說的人也有權傾聽他人演講。傾聽時必須帶著開放的胸襟、分析的態度、其目的是辨明真假、決定取捨。
 

Every man has a right to disagree with what other people say, but he must learn to disagree without being disagreeable—to listen to the opposition calmly and without losing his temper or his balance. 
每個人都有權反對他人的說話,但必須學習不失風度的反對方式。傾聽相反的意見時要心平氣和、不發脾氣、也不喪失理智。
 

Finally, every man has a right to share his thoughts, his ideas and his convictions with everyone who will listen, but he has no right to compel anyone to act unwillingly under his dictation. 
終歸而言,每個人都有權利和願意聽他說話的人分享思想、創見、信念,但沒有權強迫任何人做不願意做的事。
 

(註2)出自Thomas Jefferson所撰的美國《獨立宣言》第二段,常見的中文翻譯是:「我們認為下面這些真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物者賦予他們若干不可剝奪的權利,其中包括生命權、自由權和追求幸福的權利。為了保障這些權利,人類才在他們之間建立政府,而政府之正當權力,是經被治理者的同意而產生的。」
 

I like the definition of individual freedom given by Dr. George Pinckard, an English scholar of the 18 century. 
我喜歡18世紀英國學者喬治˙品卡德博士對個人自由的定義。
 

“True liberty,” said Dr. Pinckard, “consists in the privilege of enjoying our own rights, not in the destruction of the rights of others.” 
品卡德博士說:「真正的自由在於享受自己的權利,而不在於破壞他人的權利。」
 

And Frederic Farrar, another great Englishman, said it well with these words: “Man’s liberty ends, and it ought to end, when that liberty becomes the curse of others.” 
另一位傑出的英國人弗雷德里克˙法拉用說得好:「自由一旦變成他人的禍害,人類的自由就此終結,而且非終結不可。」
 

The Toastmasters Club stands for the integrity of the individual, for the sanctity of human character, and for the right of every man to express himself—always with this eternal and unchangeable rule, that your right are inviolable, and so are mine; your individual rights are limited as soon as they cross my rights; every person must recognize that personal rights are restricted by the rights of others.” 
國際演講會捍衛個人的正直、人類品格的崇高、以及每個人自我表達的權利。這是永恆不變的規則:你的權利不容侵犯,我的也不例外,你的權利範圍跨越我的權利範圍時就會受到限制。每個人都必須了解,個人的權利範圍止於他人的權利範圍。
 

That is the essence of the American ideal of individual freedom. That is what Toastmasters club, in the final analysis, is proud to represent and advocate. 
這是美國對個人自由理想的本質。國際演講會終究以這種本質為傲,樂於宣揚倡導。 
 
  
Editor’s note: This essay by Ralph C. Smedley originally appeared in the Toastmaster magazine in July 1948. At that time, women were not part of the organization. 
編按:本文為史邁利博士所撰,發表於1948年7月份的《國際演講人》雜誌,當時國際演講會尚未接受女性會員。
 

審稿: Howard Chang 張華